Hardinge Britten, Emma (London 1823 – Manchester 1899)
mma Hardinge was one of the most powerfully gifted speakers of spiritual philosophy. In 1865, she visited England and gave seven weekly addresses in answer to questions posed by an audience of scientists, intellectuals and thinkers of the day who were interested in Spiritualism. Miss Hardinge spoke, without preparation, in a semi-trance state being guided and influenced in her speaking by spirits whom she recognised.
She is credited with defining the seven principles of Spiritualism which, with minor changes, are still in use today by the Spiritualists' National Union in the United Kingdom. They are:
The Fatherhood of God.
The Brotherhood of Man.
The Communion of Spirits and the Ministry of Angels.
The Continuous Existence of the Human Soul.
Compensation and Retribution hereafter for all the good and evil deeds done on earth.
Eternal Progress open to every human soul.
(In the Spiritualist tradition, it is also proper to acknowledge the "Motherhood of God and the Sisterhood of Man".)